By Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.


There are several types of brotherhood. Ukhuwwat insanuyyat is universal human brotherhood shared by all humans. Ukhuwwat imaniyat is brotherhood shared by all believers. Ukhuwwat islamiyat is based on self-identification as a Muslim. Ukhuwwat shaitaniyat is based on common allegiance to shaitan. Ukhuwwat nasabiyyat is based on blood relations. Brotherhood is the basis for positive relations among people. The prescribed duties of brotherhood taught by the Prophet (PBUH) are: returning greetings, visiting the sick, following the funeral procession, accepting invitations, and responding to the sneezer. These represent the minimum that a brother must do for his brother. The general duties of brotherhood are taking care of the weak, ibraar al qasam, nasiihat for every Muslim, tolerance of differences, overlooking minor injustices, flexibility, forgiving when annoyed, reconciling between people, loving good for other Muslims, helping the weak and the oppressed, solving problems, fulfilling needs, compassion, kindness, caring giving moral support to others and helping them fight shaitan, protecting the honor of Muslims and not broadcasting their weaknesses, keeping secrets, concealing faults of other Muslims as long as there is no dhulm, fulfilling promises and commitments, good behavior and good manners even with evil people, interdependence, maintaining relations, humility, mutual respect, respect for the elderly, respecting leaders of other people, and  respecting cultural and personal differences as long as they are within bounds of the Law. The special rights of love and respect are for scholars, parents, relations, neighbors, guests, the poor, the needy, the weak, and the traveller. The following should also be respected in a special way: colleagues, those devoted to Islam, and those with opposing views.



Formal groups are large and impersonal. Informal groups are small but personal. The family is an informal group that is intimate and personal. A person can belong to several informal or formal groups at the same time. The term jama’at is used to refer to Muslim groups. Relations between people may be positive or negative. Relations must be genuine. Interaction evolves from the stage of initial meeting (i'ltiqa), selection, choice and conscious decision to cooperate (intiqa), and rising above selfish interests to secure a higher common purpose (irtiqa). Social interaction can be cooperation, competition, or conflict. Interdependence is a basis for social interaction. Social power is control the actions of other people. It can be physical, formal authority, or influence. Some control is needed for efficient functioning of society. Social deviation is failure to conform to customary norms.



Etiquette of the meal is starting with tasmiyat, using the right hand, eating what is infront, being humble, and not criticizing the food, thanking Allah at the end of the meal, attending a meal only by invitation and not bringing along an uninvited guest, a dua for the host, and leaving immediately after eating. Forgiveness, humility, and self improvement are encouraged. Spying, pride, anger, jealousy, approaching zina, transgression, and hatred are discouraged. The rights of the guest and the host must be respected. Conversation should be polite and moral. Manners of the road must be observed. Unity, cooperation, and reconciliation should be encouraged. The good is enjoined and the bad is forbidden.


32.2.4 SOCIAL DISEASES, amraadh ijtima’iyyat

Dhulm is ruling by what Allah did not enjoin, physical and psychological harassment of others, and violating the rights of others. Corruption is in the form of bribery, nepotism, and favoritism. Mass media cause annoyance for Muslims, backbiting, rumor mongering, mockery, lying, abuse, and false accusations

(c) Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. 2004