19.5.1 DIFFICULT CONDITIONS
The following are considered difficult physical circumstances: extreme heat, extreme cold, rain &
flooding, earthquake, and a long journey. The following are considered difficult psychological conditions: fear, khawf, urgent
need for relief of stool or urine, hunger when food is presented, overwhelming sleep, forgetting, and mind wandering.
19.5.2 SALAT IN EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS
Salat can be delayed for weather conditions that can change for example delaying salat al dhuhr on
a hot day.
19.5.3 SALAT DURING WAR
Soldiers on the battle field can pray abridged prayers and physical movements are changed. The salat of fear, salat al khawf is prayer
during a legally-sanctioned military engagement. The
salat of fear, salat al khawf is prayer during a legally-sanctioned
military engagement. Some fighters pray, others guard them, and others engage the enemy. Some fighters pray, others guard
them, and others engage the enemy. If the danger is extreme prayer can be performed while riding or standing. One rakaat is
sufficient when in danger. If the danger is extreme prayer can be performed while riding or standing. One rakaat is sufficient
when in danger. If the fighting is very intense, prayer can be by nodding instead of bowing and prostration. If the fighting
is very intense, prayer can be by nodding instead of bowing and prostration.
19.5.4 SALAT OF THE TRAVELLER
The traveler can shorten the prayer, qasr al salat. This applies to the 4-rakaat prayers: salat al
dhuhr, salat al asr, and salat al isha. Salat al maghrib and salat al fajr are prayed in full. Qasr is carried out during
the journey and only for 3 days after arriving at the final destination. On arrival at the destination with the intention
of traveling again, qasar can be continued for 18 days and no more. Joining, jam'u, can be done in case of rain preventing
return for another salat, for a nursing woman, for a woman with a chronic vaginal discharge who is not sure she will be in
a clean state for the next salat, fear of urinal contamination for those with urinary incontinence, fear for life, fear for
property, and fear for honor. In the cases mentioned above, the joining of salat can be only apparent and not real, jam'u
suuri. The first salat is offered at the end of its time while the next one is
offered at the start of its period. The traveler is permitted to join 2 adjacent prayers, jamu al salat fi al safar. Dhuhr
and asr can be offered together at the time of dhuhr, jam'u taqdiim, or at the time of asr, jam'u ta'akhir. Maghrib and isha
can be offered at the time of maghrib or the time of isha. There is merit in shortening the prayer by the traveler. It is
offensive for the traveler to refuse making use of the exemptions given. The shortest journey for which salat is shortened
is 81 km or 48 miles. What matters is the distance and not the time required to cover that distance. If there is no way at
all for holding salat, it can be made up at a suitable time later.
19.5.5 SALAT OF THE SICK, salat al maridh
The patient may have the following physical handicaps: inability to face the qiblat, inability to stand,
inability to sit, inability to read, inability to bow, and inability to prostrate. The following are solution alternatives:
make-up salat, qadha al salat; resting for moments in a sitting position to regain energy for the next movement; praying in
a sitting position; praying while sitting down and cross-legged; praying while lying down on one side of the body; resting
on a staff in salat; Praying by gesturing with one part of the body e.g. finger; and finally praying in the mind with no motions.
The sick stop qiyam al layl and try to fulfill the 5 prescribed prayers. Salat can be interrupted for an urgent need that
could be medical or otherwise. Soldiers on the battle field can pray abridged prayers and physical movements are changed.
Women are excused from salat during the period of menstruation because of the associated physiological stress.