19.4 SPECIAL TYPES OF SALAT, anwaau al salawaat

By Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.


Al salawaat al khams, the five daily prayers, are obligatory for all Muslims. Salat al fajr is 2 raka’at offered at dawn. Salat al dhuhr is 4 raka’at offerred at mid-day. Salat al asr is 4 raka’at offered at mid-afternoon. Salat al magrib is 3 raka’at offered at sunset. Salat al isha is 4 raka’ats offered at night.


19.4.2 THE FRIDAY SALAT, salat al jumu'at

Salat al jumuat is personally obligatory for all Muslims with the exceptions of servants, women, children, the sick, and the traveler. Bathing, siwaak, perfume, oiling hair, and good clothes are recomemnded on Friday. Early arrival, tranquility, and dhikr on the way are recommended. Two adhans are made. The first one is a warning and the second is befofe the khutbat. Attentive listening to the khutbat is part of salat al jumu’at. Speaking during the khutbat is forbidden even if it is admonishing another person to be quiet. The imaam stands up and delivers 2 short khutbats in a loud voice with a brief pause between. The khutbah can be in any other language.  Salat al jumaat is 2 raka’ats prayed after the khutbat with loud recitation of the Qur'an. A late-comer who prays only one raka’at with the imaam can make up the missed raka’at. A late-cpmer should not displace anybody who is already seated.



Salat al layl / salat al tahajjud / salat al qiyaam has no limit to the number of raka’ats that can be prayed at night but each two must be concluded with tashahhud and tasliim. Salat al tarawiih is 20 raka’ats on each night preceding a day of Ramadhan. Salat al witr is the last prayer of the night offered at any time between salat al isha and salat al fajr. Its raka’ats are odd with a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 11. Salat al dhuha offered at mid-morning is 2, 8, or 12 raka’ats. Salat al tatawu'u is before, qabliyat, or after, ba'adiyat, the 5 prescribed prayers. Its raka’ats are 2 before salat al fajr, 2 before salat al dhuhr, 4 after salat al dhuhr, 4 before salat al asr, 2 after salat al maghrib, and 2 after salat al isha. Salat al eid is a community gathering and a sunnat mu akkadat. Food is taken before salat eid al fitr but not before salat eid al adh'ha. It is sunnat to return from salat by a different route and to walk on foot. Bathing, best clothes, and going for salat are recommended. Salat al eid is best held in an open space but can be held in the masjid if it rains. It consists of 2 raka’at followed by 2 khutbats. The imaam arrives just before start of salat. Takbirs are pronounced 9 before the first khutbah and 7 before the second.  Adhan and iqamat are not required. The call to prayer is ‘al salat jami’at’ repeated twice. There are 7 takbirs in the first rakaat and 5 in the second. No salat nafilat is allowed before or after salat al eid at the place of the congregation. It is recommended to repeat takbir on all days of ‘eid.



Salat al istisqaa it is 2 rak'ats followed by 2 khutbahs offered during drought to ask Allah for rain. Salat al kusuf is offered during a solar eclipse. It has no adhan or iqamat. It is 2 rak'ats but each rak'at has 2 fatiha recitations and 2 ruku’us with 2 khutbahs at the end of salat. Salat al khussuf is offered during a lunar eclipse. Salat al khawf is offered during a legally-sanctioned military engagement. Some fighters offer salat, others guard them, and others engage the enemy. If the danger is extreme salat can be performed while riding or standing. One raka’at is sufficient when in danger. If the fighting is very intense, salat can be by nodding instead of ruku’u or sujuud. Salat al istikharat, is offered when there is a matter that requires decision and the right solution is not known. After praying 2 rak'ats a special dua is said recited asking for guidance in decision making.



Sunnat tahiyyat al masjid is offered as 2 raka 'at on entering an ordinary masjid but tawaaf is preferred for masjid al haraam. Salat al safar is 2 rak'ats offered on starting a journey and 2 rak'at on return. Salat sunnat al I'iktikaaf is 2 rak'ats. Salat sunnat al wudhu is 2 rak'ats at end of wudhu. Salat al janazat for the dead is fardh kifayat fulfilled by 1 male or some females. The corpse is placed on its right side with the face towards qiblat. The imaam stands at the head of the male corpse and at the lower end of the female corpse. One salat al janazat can be offered for several corpses simultaneously. Salat al janazat consists of 4 takbirs without any rukuu’u or sujuud. Surat al fatiha is recited at the first takbir. Salat ‘ala al nabi is recited at the second takbir. Dua is recited for the deceased at the third takbir. The following formula is recited at the fourth takbir ‘allahuma la tahrimuna ajrahu wa la taftinna ba’adahu’. This is followed by tasliim. Salat al janazat is held for all the dead except those who died of suicide. It is held just before burial. Salat al ghaib is offered for a deceased buried elsewhere. It cannot be held in the cemetery.

(c) Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. 2004