19.2 RULINGS OF SALAT, ahkaam al salat

By Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr.


Children are told to pray at the age of 7 years and are punished for not praying at the age of 10. Adults (post- puberty or age 15 and above) who are sane are obliged to pray. Women in menstruation or post-natal bleeding are exempted from salat and do not have to make up the missed ones. They can however attend the 2 salats of ‘eid but do not have to carry out the physical acts of prayer.



The following are conditions for validity of salat, shuruut al salat: (a) purification of the body from excrement of stool and urine (b) purity of the garment (c) purity of the place (d) covering nakedness (e) facing the direction of the ka’aba, (f) ascertaining the entry of salat time (g) knowing the obligation of salat and (h) and knowing the method of salatr.  Among the offensives, makruhat al salat, are salat with hunger, thirst, or urinary and fecal urgency. Omitting one of the following sunnats of salat is left our requires sujuud al sahaw: (a) the first tashahhud (b) sitting in the first tashahhud (c) asking blessings for the prophet in the first tashahhud (d) asking for blessings on the relatives of the Prophet in the first tashahhud (e) reciting al qunuut (f) standing up in qunuut. The following are invalidators of salat, mubtilaat al salat (a) extraneous speech, (b) extraneous movements, and (c) eating (d) speech.



Adhan and iqamat are obligatory for salat al jama’at but sunnat for individual salat. They are required for a second congregation held in the same place for latecomers. They are not adhan is required salat al jama’at of women. The muaddhin must have wudhu, face the qiblat, and raise the voice. Adhan is only at the start of salat time interval except for salat al fajr when it can be before the time to wake people from sleep. A prescribed response to adhan is required even during haidh and janaba but is delayed in copulation and or when in the toliet. A prescribed dua is recited at the end of the adhan. Salat al nafilat is allowed between adhan and iqamat but not after iqamat. Emergencies can be attended to after iqamat. After adhan worshippers should come to salat with calmness without rushing. The latecomer makes up what was missed. When camping out in the open or if a hospital public address system is used, people can pray where they are on hearing adhan and iqamat.


19.2.4 PLACE AND TIMES OF SALAT, waqtu al salat & makaan al salat:

Facing the qiblat (general direction of the ka’aba) is required for salat al fardh but not salat al nafilat offered on amoving vehicle. Salat can be offered inside or outside masjids. Masjids should be simple (in building and furnishing) and clean. Salat al nafilat is best offered at home. A barrier is used for salat in an open space. Salat in the hospital can be on the bed of facing a bed. Salat is not permitted in the cemetery, the bath-house, middle of the road, rubbish dump, the church, or a slaughter-house. Sujuud is allowed on wood or on a mat. The times of obligatory salat are a fixed interval. The best of salat is at the start of the interval. On a journey 2 salats can be combined by jam ‘u taqdiim or jam’uu taakhiir. Salat al dhuhr can be delayed in extreme heat and salat al isha can be delayed to late night. Salat is prohibited between salat al fajr and sunrise, just before sunset, and at midday until the sun crosses the meridian. These prohibitions do not apply for salat al qadhat, salat nafilat for a specific purpose, sunnat al tahajjud, sunnat al wudhu, and for salat al janazat. There is no time restriction on salat in the haram of Makka. Salat is delayed in extreme hunger and extreme thirst in presence of food or drink, and extreme heat or extreme cold. A forgotten salat is offered as soon as it is remembered. Adhan and salat al jamaat are allowed in make-up prayers but sujuud al sahaw is not required.


19.2.5 REGULATIONS OF CONGREGATIONAL PRAYER, ahkaam salat al jama’at:

Salat al jama’at is communally obligatory, fardh kifayat, for resident males in order to establish the practice of salat in public but is sunnat for women and travelers. The criteria of the imaam (in order) are: knowledge, memorization of the Qur'an, older age, moral reputation, cleanliness, and a good voice. The host, the masjid imaam, and the sultan have priority as imams. A woman can be imaam of other women. Once selected, the imaam must be followed closely. The imaam must consider the weak in the congregation. If the imaam prolongs the salat, the follower with a need is allowed to leave. The imaam can be reminded by a follower reciting the correct passage. An imam who forgets an action is reminded by men saying 'subhana al laah' and women by clapping hands. Followers cease following an imaam who omits a pillar of salat. They perform a sunnat omitted by the imaam on their own and continue following him. It is permissible for the imaam to offer a different salat from that of the followers. The followers cannot offer salat al qasr if the imaam is offering a ful salat.

(c) Professor Omar Hasan Kasule Sr. 2004