17.2.1 EXAMINATION AND INVESTIGATION
Patient consent is necessary for history taking otherwise it is considered trespassing on privacy and
spying. History taking provides an opportunity to discuss diseases of the heart that underlie physical disease. It is an opportunity
for taubat and dawa. It is also opportunity to advise on legal matters such as foster relations and iddat. The physician is
not obliged to report criminal information to the authorities unless there is demonstrable immediate public interest and necessity.
Physical clinical examination also requires infomed consent. A patient can only be examined against his or her consent only
if there is a necessity relating to the life of the patient or to public interest such as criminal investigation. Mental patients
can are not legally competent to give consent; the necessary consent could be obtained from a guardian, wali. Examination by a caregiver of the opposite gender requires special consideration. It is always preferable
that physicians of the same gender carry out the examination. A physician of the opposite gender can be used only if a situation
of necessity arises. A chaperone must be present. Examination limited to what is necessary. The results of laboratory investigations
have the same requirements for confidentiality as history and clinical examination. The results of radiological investigations
are confidential. Images that show the shape of the body parts can be considered showing awrat and should not be seen except
by authorized people only and for specific purposes. Invasive investigations carry a higher risk to the patient; their benefits
should be carefully weighed against the benefits. These investigations should be carried out only if there is a clear necessity,
17.2.2 MEDICAL TREATMENT
Medical treatment may involve destruction (antibiotics, cytotoxics, anti-metabolites, antagonists,
antitoxins, and detoxification), replacement (hormones, fluids, electrolytes), biological modification & modulation, psycho-active
therapy, and supportive treatment (diet, rest, analgesia etc). It is prohibited to use haram materials and najasat as treatment.
What is prohibited as food or drink is also prohibited as medicine. Exceptions are made in cases of dharuurat. Medicine taken
orally does not nullify wudhu. Any medicine that is taken but is not swallowed and is vomited out is considered like vomitus.
Medicine given per rectum nullifies wudhu. Subcutaneous or intravenous or intramuscular injections do not nullify wudhu unless
there is extensive external bleeding. Any medicine taken orally or rectally or any insertion of a scope will nullify saum.
17.2.3 SURGICAL TREATMENT
Permitted surgical procedures include resection, restorative/reconstructive surgery, transplantation,
blood transfusion, anesthesia, and critical care. Transfusion of whole blood or blood components is widely accepted and raises
few legal or ethical issues. Blood donation is analogous to organ donation by a living donor. Transfused blood is not considered
filth, najasat, because it is not spilled blood. Blood transfusion is allowed
on the basis of dharuurat. There is no problem in blood donation between Muslims and non-Muslims because they share human
brotherhood. There is no problem in blood transfusion between a man and a woman. Blood transfusion does not abrogate the wudhu
of the donor or the recipient. Sale
of blood is permitted using the analogy of sale of milk by wet nurse who is paid for her services. Attempts must be made to
minimize inappropriate mixing of male and female health care personnel in a small confined space of the operating theater.
In emergency treatment/critical care, financial considerations complicate the picture when destitute patients who cannot pay
present at the emergency room.
17.2.4 OTHER TREATMENTS
Dua, ruqyah, tawakkul, and raja are spiritual treatments. Immunization and other preventive measures
are treatment before disease and are not denial of qadar. It is permitted to slaughter on behalf of the sick taqarruban ila al llaah and to give the poor. It is prohibited to slaughter for the jinn and the shaitan. Various
traditional, alternative, and complementary therapies are permitted if they are of benefit. Other permitted treatment modalities
are irradiation, immunotherapy, and genetic therapy.